like durability loss, world event reward denial etc?
i feel like dying and respawning feels punishing enough on it’s own: it’s a loss of time, loss of opportunity, potential loss of progress if it was base defence, thumping or monster hunting.
it could be used as a resource sink, but with the opportunity cost of dying player already loses something they put work into gaining.
perhaps accessing some of the more rewarding - and dangerous - content should require resoruces to reach it? a single-use safety bubble device, extra plating for thumper that’s too heavy to fly back, detoxifying chemicals etc.
I think the two most appropiate punishments are no reward from the current activity and damage to the equipment (= gear performance decrease), but we have to discuss this a bit more as not many people like to fix their stuff all the time, it needs to be nicely balanced just as everything else.
If it was an idea (well it is), i think death should lead to periodic halting in modules with sparkling effects. Skills may sometimes failure, rocket pack turnes off and on, etc. This should have a accumulative effect so that 1st death makes rare failures (in addition you loose time and progress in defence etc) and every next death make failures go more often up to 50/50 after 10 deaths. Repiar should take some time, for example about 10 seconds for each death. It’s like durability system but more lore and a player should think, should he do repair now and loose less time, or later - and loose more.